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Essential oils, Absolutes and Concretes
 

Essential oils, absolutes and concretes are highly concentrated and need to be diluted before using in any manner. For example, they can be used in body and hair care products, compresses, diffusers, flower waters, massage oils, perfumes, potpourris, spritzers, vaporizers, and perfumes. Visit the ideas for use of essential oils, frequently asked questions for additional information and ideas. Also, refer to safety precautions before using any essential oils.

Codes:
(A = Aromatherapy, S = Scent, F = Flavor)  (When used on the body, PH = Phototoxic, HI = not for High blood pressure, EP = not for Epilepsy, DI = not for Diabetes, PR = not during Pregnancy, SE = possible Sensitization or Dermal irritation, TO = possible toxicity. See Safety Precautions for additional information, do not use full strength, keep away from children, eyes and mucus membranes and do a patch test before using any new oils on the body).
 

AMYRIS
Amyris balsamifera
Essential oil
A pale, yellow robust liquid with a faintly woody, musty scent from the broken-up wood and branches. Locals call it candle or torch wood because of its high oil content, and is used as a torch by traders and fishermen. Also known as West Indian Sandalwood, however bears no relation to the Santalum species. Blends well with citronella, lavandin, oakmoss, and woods. Antiseptic, balsamic, fixative, sedative. (A)
BALSAM, Peru
Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae
Essential oil
Pale amber to brownish viscous liquid with a sweet, rich, balsamic, vanilla-like scent. Blends well with patchouli, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang, and floral, oriental or spice blends. Use for asthma, eczema, rashes, wounds and stress. Warming and comforting. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, expectorant, fixative, parasiticide, stimulant. (A, S) (SE)
BASIL, French
Ocimum basilicum
Essential oil
Also known as "true" sweet basil, this annual herb produces a colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation with a fresh, sweet, light, spicy scent. Blends well with clary sage, citronella, geranium, and lime. Use for anxiety, fatigue, insect bites, insect repellent, migraines, muscular aches, and rheumatism. Good aromatic nerve tonic providing mind strength and clarity. Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, digestive, expectorant, restorative. Cheers and strengthens. (A, S) (PR, SE)
BAY, Rum Tree
Pimenta racemosa
Essential oil
From the West Indian bay rum tree. A dark yellow liquid with a sweet-balsamic scent and fresh, spicy overtone. Blends well with lavender, rosemary, geranium, ylang ylang and spice oils.  Analgesic, antiseptic, astringent, stimulant. Good for scalp stimulation and muscular aches and pains. (A, S)
BIRCH, White
Betula alba
Essential oil
Pale yellow viscous oil by steam distillation has a woody balsamic scent. Blends well with other balsamic and woody oils. Use for its skin healing effects and for hair care, arthritis, dermatitis, eczema, muscular pain, poor circulation and psoriasis. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic. Not to be confused with Sweet Birch which is potentially toxic. (A, S)
BLACK PEPPER
Piper Nigrum
Essential oil
A warming, pungent oil obtained from the dried and crushed peppercorns. A white to pale olive liquid with a dry, woody, spicy scent. Blends well with frankincense, lavender, rosemary, sandalwood and spice. Analgesic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic. antitoxic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, rubefacient, stimulant, tonic. Used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Good for muscular aches and stiffness. Use in moderation. (A)
CAJEPUT
Melaleuca cajeputi
Essential oil
A pale yellow-green oil from the fresh leaves and and twigs. Has a medicinally camphoraceous scent similar to eucalyptus with a slightly fruity undertone. Known for producing a warming sensation and quickening the pulse. Antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antiseptic, insecticide, tonic. Used for colds and muscular aches. (A)
CALENDULA
Calendula officinalis
Absolute, Extract
Also known as Pot Marigold, this annual herb produces a dark greenish-brown viscous liquid by solvent extraction with a strong, sharp, herbaceous scent. Blends well with citrus and floral oils. Use for burns, cuts, eczema, inflammation, insect bites, oily skin, rashes, and wounds. Has powerful skin healing properties. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, fungicidal. (A, S)
CAMPHOR, White
Cinnamomum camphora
Essential oil
This colorless to pale liquid by steam distillation has a sharp, pungent camphoraceous scent. Use for acne, inflammation, insect prevention, muscular aches and pains, oily skin, rheumatism and shock. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bactericidal, and stimulant. Stimulates breathing and heartbeat. Use with care. Not to be confused with brown and yellow camphor which is toxic. (A,S)
CARDAMOM
Elettaria cardamomum
Essential oil
This colorless to pale yellow liquid from steam distillation of the dried ripe seeds have a warm, sweet-spicy scent with a woodsy-balsamic undertone. Blends well with cedarwood, cinnamon, neroli, orange, rose, ylang ylang, and oriental blends. Use for stress and digestive ailments. Antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, digestive, stimulant. (A, S, F)
CARROT SEED
Daucus carota
Essential oil
This highly nutritious annual or biennial herb produces a yellowish to amber liquid by steam distillation of the dried seeds and has a dry, warm, spicy, woodsy-earth scent. Blends well with cedarwood, geranium, and citrus or spice oils. Use for arthritis, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, rashes, and wrinkles. High in vitamin A. Antiseptic, stimulant, tonic. (A, S, F)
CASCARILL BARK
Croton eleuteria
Essential oil
Pale yellow, greenish, or dark amber liquid by steam distillation with an aromatic, warm, woodsy-spice scent. Blends well with nutmeg, sage, and oriental or spice blends. Used as a natural flavoring agent and for respiratory and digestive disorders. Astringent, antimicrobial, expectorant. (A, S, F)
CEDARWOOD, Atlas
Cedrus atlantica
Essential oil
This yellowish to amber viscous oil has a warm camphoraceous top note with a warm, woodsy-balsamic, sweet undertone. Blends well with clary sage, jasmine, neroli, rosemary, rosewood, vetiver, ylang ylang, and floral or oriental blends. Use for acne, arthritis, dandruff, eczema, fungal infections, hair loss, insect repellent, oily skin, perspiration, poor circulation, stress, and wounds. Antiseptic, antiseborrheic, aphrodisiac, astringent, fixative, fungicidal. Useful for men's fragrances. Strengthens hair growth and detoxifies scalp and hair roots. Calming, warming strengthening and rejuvenating. (A, S) (PR)
CHAMOMILE, German
Matricaria chamomilla
Essential oil
This annual herb produces an inky-blue viscous liquid from the presence of Azulen, and is produced by steam distillation. Has a strong, sweet, warm herbaceous middle note scent. Blends well with clary sage, geranium, jasmine, lemon, lavender, patchouli, rose, and ylang ylang. Powerful skin healer. See Roman Chamomile for uses. Analgesic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bactericidal, digestive, fungicidal and nerve sedative. There are many varieties of Chamomile. (A, S, F) (SE)
CHAMOMILE, Roman
Chamaemelum nobile/ Anthemis nobilis
Essential oil
This small perennial apple scented herb produces a pale liquid with a warm, sweet, fruity-herbaceous scent. Blends well with geranium, jasmine, lavender, neroli, and rose. Use for acne, arthritis, eczema, hair care, inflammations, insect bites, insomnia, headache, muscular pain, rashes, sensitive skin, toothache and wounds. Analgesic, antiseptic, bactericidal, nerve sedative. (A, S, F) (SE)
CINNAMON, Leaf
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Essential oil
A yellow to brownish liquid from steam distillation with a slightly harsh, warm, spicy base note. Blends well with mandarin, orange, ylang ylang and oriental blends. Use for gum and tooth care, lice, poor circulation, rheumatism, scabies, warts, and wasp stings. Antimicrobial, antiseptic, parasiticide, stimulant. Strong antiseptic and astringent properties. Use with care. Not to be confused with cinnamon bark oil, which should not be used. (A, S, F) (PR, SE, TO)
CITRONELLA
Cymbopogon nardus or winterianus (Java)
Essential oil
Brownish-yellow mobile liquid by steam distillation with a powerful lemony scent. The Java oil is colorless to pale yellow with a woodsy-sweet fresh aroma considered for its quality in perfumery work. Blends well with cedarwood, geranium, lemon, orange and pine. Use for headache, insect repellent, oily skin and perspiration. Antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, fungicidal, insecticide. (A, S, F) (PR, SE)
CLOVE, Bud
Eugenia caryophyllata
Essential oil
Pale yellow liquid by distillation of the buds has a spicy-sweet base note with a fresh, fruity top note. Use for acne, arthritis, athlete's foot, burns, cuts, insect repellent, and toothaches. Antibiotic, antiseptic, antiviral, expectorant, stimulant. Stimulates the brain. Traditional antispasmodic toothache remedy. Use only the bud oil, not the stem or leaf oils. Use with care. (A, S, F) (PR, SE, TO)
CORIANDER
Coriandrum sativum
Essential oil
This annual herb produces a colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation of the dried fruit and has a warm, sweet, woodsy-spice scent. Blends well with cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, cypress, geranium, ginger, jasmine, neroli, pine, rose and sandalwood, among others. Use for arthritis, migraine, muscular aches, poor circulation, and rheumatism. Aphrodisiac due to its estrogen content, anti-oxidant, bactericidal, fungicidal, revitalizing, stimulant, stress. Use in moderation. (A, S, F) (SE, TO)
CYPRESS
Cupressus sempervirens
Essential oil
This tall evergreen tree produces a pale yellow to greenish-olive mobile liquid with a base note smoky, sweet-balsamic tenacious odor. Blends will with cedarwood, clary sage, lavender, lemon, mandarin, orange, pine and sandalwood, among others. Use for acne, asthma, dandruff, hemorrhoids, insect repellent, oily skin, perspiration, poor circulation, rheumatism, stress and wounds. Balances female harmone system. Antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, deodorant. (A, S)
ELEMI
Canarium luzonicum
Essential oil
This tropical tree produces a colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation from the gum and has a fresh, light, lemon-like, balsamic-spicy scent. Blends well with cinnamon, frankincense, lavender, myrrh, rosemary and sage. Use for infected cuts, inflammations, skin care, stress, wounds and wrinkles. Antiseptic, expectorant, stimulant. (A, S)
EUCALYPTUS
Eucalyptus citriodora
Essential oil
Known as Lemon-scented Eucalyptus, it produces a colorless or pale yellow liquid by steam distillation with a top note, fresh, strong, citronella-like odor and sweet balsamic undertone. Use for acne, athlete's foot, cuts, dandruff, fungal and infectious skin conditions, insect repellent and wounds. Antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, expectorant, fungicidal, insecticide. Also see Eucalyptus globulus. Use externally. (A, S) (SE, TO)
EUCALYPTUS
Eucalyptus globulus
Extract and Essential oil
Known as Blue Gum Eucalyptus, it produces a colorless, to yellowish upon aging, mobile liquid by steam distillation. Has a medicinally camphoraceous scent with woody undertone. Blends well with cedarwood, lemon, lavender, pine and rosemary. Use for arthritis, blisters, burns, chest rub, cuts, dandruff, deodorant, herpes, insect bites and repellents, lice, muscular aches and pains, skin infections and wounds. Uplifting. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and cooling. Analgesic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, parasiticide. Refreshing, stimulating and increases oxygen supply for concentration. There are many other varieties of Eucalyptus. Use externally. (A, S) (SE, TO)
FENNEL, Sweet
Foeniculum vulgare
Essential oil
Colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation from the crushed seeds with a warm, sweet, anise-like, peppery earth scent. Blends well with geranium, lavender, rose and sandalwood. Use for asthma, oily and mature skin and pyorrhea. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic. Estrogen stimulating properties. Calming. Use in moderation. Not to be confused with bitter fennel which should not be used. (A, F) (EP, PR, TO)
FRANKINCENSE
Boswellia carteri
Essential oil
This small tree or shrub provides a pale yellow or greenish liquid by steam distillation with a fresh, terpeny top note and rich, sweet balsamic undertone. Blends well with camphor, geranium, neroli, orange, pine and sandalwood, among others. Good for blemishes, dry and mature skin, scars, wounds and wrinkles. Facial toner. Focusing for meditation. Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent. (A, S)
GARDENIA
Gardenia jasminoides
Absolute and concrete
Dark yellow, oily liquid from the white and yellow flowers of tropical trees and shrubs by solvent extraction with a rich, floral, sweet jasmine-like scent. Used for perfumery. Antiseptic, aphrodisiac. (S)
GERANIUM, ROSE
Pelargonium graveolens
Essential oil
Yellowish to greenish-olive liquid by steam distillation has a middle note, floral, rose-like scent. Blends well with clove, jasmine, lavender, patchouli, and citrus oils. Use for acne, burns, eczema, hemorrhoids, inflamed and irritated skin, lice, mature skin, mosquito repellent, oily skin, ringworm, stress and wounds. Is relaxing, balancing and uplifting. Helps repel insects when used in aroma lamps. Anti-inflammatory, astringent, deodorant, fungicidal. (A, S, F) (SE)
GINGER
Zingiber officinale
Essential oil
Obtained from the dried rhizomes, this yellow to greenish-amber liquid by steam distillation has a spicy, warm, woodsy scent. Blends well with cedarwood, frankincense, neroli, patchouli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, vetiver and citrus oils. Use for arthritis, muscular aches, nervousness, poor circulation and strains. Anti-oxidant, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, expectorant, stimulant. (A, S, F) (PO, SE)
GRAPEFRUIT
Citrus paradisi
Extract and Essential oil
Yellow to greenish mobile liquid with a top note, fresh, sweet, citrus aroma. Blends well with cypress, geranium, lavender, lemon, neroli, palmarosa, rosemary, and other spice oils. Use for acne, headache, hair growth stimulant, muscle stiffness, oily skin, skin and tissue toner and stress. Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitoxic, astringent, bactericidal, stimulant. Refreshing and uplifting. High in vitamin C. Short shelf life as it oxidizes quickly. (A, S, F) (PO)
HELICHRYSUM
Helichrysum angustifolium
Essential oil
Also known as Immortelle, this strongly aromatic annual herb produces a pale yellow to red oily liquid by stem distillation with a strong, rich, honey-like scent with a mild tea-like undertone. Blends well with chamomile, clary sage, geranium, lavender, rose and citrus oils. Use for acne, asthma, burns and sunburns, cuts, eczema, fixative, inflammation, muscular aches, nervousness, pains and stress. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant and fungicidal. (A, S)
JASMINE
Jasmine grandiflorum or officinale
Absolute, Concrete
The absolute is a dark brownish-orange, viscous liquid with a middle note, intense, warm, rich, floral scent and tea-like undertone. Blends well with most oils, especially clary sage, rose, sandalwood and citrus oils. Use for depression, all skin types, muscular spasms, stress. Analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, expectorant, sedative. Uplifting and good for general skin care. Used in high-class floral and oriental perfumes. Inspirational and mood lifting. (A, S) (SE)
LAVENDER, True
Lavandula angustifolia/
Lavandula
officinalis/
Lavandula vera
Essential oil, Absolute
The flower tops of this evergreen woody shrub produces a colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation with a middle note, sweet, floral-herbaceous scent with a balsamic-woody undertone. Blends will with most oils, especially floral and citrus, cedarwood, clary sage, pine, geranium, patchouli and vetiver. The absolute is a dark green viscous liquid with an extremely sweet herbaceous, and slightly floral scent. Use for acne, athlete's foot, burns, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, headaches, inflammations, insect bites and stings, insect repellent, lice, psoriasis, ringworm, skin and hair conditioner, sunburn, wounds and stress. All skin types. Calming and balancing. Analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, astringent, insecticide, moisturizing, parasiticide, muscle relaxant, sedative and tension. Excellent multi-purpose oil. There are many different lavender species. Stimulates white blood cell formation, particularly good for acne and as a skin rejuvenating oil. (A, S, F)
LAVENDER, Spike
Lavandula latifolia/
Lavandula spica
Essential oil
The flowers of this aromatic evergreen shrub produce a clear to pale yellow liquid by water or steam distillation with a fresh, herbaceous, camphoraceous scent. Blends well with cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, patchouli, pine, rosemary, rosewood, sage and other spice oils. See True Lavender for uses and actions, and also used to get rid of lice. (A,S,F)
LEMON
Citrus limon
Essential oil
Pale greenish-yellow liquid is cold expressed from the peel's outer skin and has a top note, light lemony-citrus scent, high in vitamin C. Blends well with chamomile, geranium, eucalyptus, juniper, lavender, neroli, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang and citrus oils, among others. Use for acne, arthritis, corns, cuts, greasy skin, insect bites, poor circulation and rheumatism. Useful for skin and hair care, especially light hair, and re-establishes the pH balance of skin. Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, insecticidal and stimulant. Fresh, clean and clarifying. (A, S, F) (PO, SE)
LEMONGRASS
Cymbopogon citratus or flexuosus
Essential oil
This aromatic perennial grass produces a yellowish to reddish-brown liquid with a top note, fresh grassy-lemon scent, with an earthy undertone. Stimulating and refreshing. Use for acne, athlete's foot, insect repellent, muscular pain and poor circulation, scabies and stress. Skin and hair care, cleansing. Analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, deodorant, fungicidal and insecticidal. Strengthens blood vessels, stimulates, and cools. (A, S, F) (SE)
LIME
Citrus aurantifolia
Essential oil
Pale yellow to olive green oil with a top note, fresh, sweet citrus-peel odor from cold expression, or sharp fruity-citrus scent from steam distillation. Blends well with citronella, clary sage lavender, neroli, rosemary, and other citrus oils. Use for acne, arthritis, corns, cuts, deodorant, greasy skin, insect bites, poor circulation, rheumatism and warts. Tightens skin. Antirheumatic, antiseptic, bactericidal. (A, S, F) (PO)
MANDARIN
Citrus reticulata
Essential oil
Yellowish-orange mobile liquid is cold expressed from the outer peel and has an intensely sweet, floral-citrus scent. Blends will with other citrus oils, especially neroli, and spice oils. Use for acne, insomnia, nervousness, oily skin, scars and toner. Antiseptic, antispasmodic. (A, S, F) (PO)
MARJORAM, Sweet
Origanum marjorana
Essential oil
This tender perennial herb, treated as an annual in colder climates, produces a pale yellow to amber liquid with a warm, spicy, woody, camphoraceous scent by steam distillation. Blends well with cedarwood, chamomile, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary, and tea tree. Use for arthritis, bruises, headache, insomnia, ticks and stress. Analgesic, anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, digestive, expectorant, fungicidal, sedative. (A, S, F) (PR)
MYRRH
Commiphora myrrha
Essential oil
Pale yellow to amber liquid with sweet-balsamic, slightly spicy-medicinal odor. Blends will with cypress, frankincense, geranium, juniper, lavender, mandarin, patchouli, mints, pine, sandalwood and spices. Use for arthritis, asthma, athlete's foot, chapped and cracked skin, eczema, fixative, gingivitis, gum infections, halitosis, hemorrhoids, irritated skin, shingles, ringworm, toothache, wounds and wrinkles. Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, fungicidal, revitalizing. (A, S) (PR)
MYRTLE
Myrtus communis
Essential oil
This pale yellow to orange mild liquid by steam distillation of the flowering branch tips has a middle note, fresh, sweet, spicy, herbaceous, eucalyptus-like scent. Blends well with spice oils, clary sage, lavender, lime and rosemary. Use for asthma, acne, deodorant, hemorrhoids and oily skin. Antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, expectorant, mildly sedative. Clarifying and cleansing. (A, S)
NEROLI
Citrus aurantium var. amara
Absolute, Essential oil
Also known as Orange Blossom, this expensive flower produces an orange or dark brown viscous liquid absolute which has a middle note, rich, fresh sweet-floral scent and blends well with jasmine, myrrh and all citrus oils. The pale yellow mobile oil from steam distillation has a light, sweet floral scent with a terpeney top note and blends will with most oils, especially chamomile, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, rose, rosemary, ylang ylang and other citrus oils, among others. Use for anxiety, deodorant, depression, insomnia, nervousness, scars, stretch marks, mature and sensitive skin, poor circulation, stress and wrinkles. All skin types. Antidepressant, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, deodorant, fungicidal, stimulant. Good for emotional well being. Absolute used in high-class perfumery, especially citrus, floral and oriental blends, and the oil in eau-de-cologne and toilet waters. Reputed to stimulate cell growth. (A, S)
NIAOULI
Melaleuca viridiflora
Essential oil
A member of the `tea tree’ oil group, this evergreen tree produces a clear to pale yellow or greenish liquid by steam distillation from leaves and twigs and has a fresh, sweet, camphoraceous scent. Use for acne, asthma, boils, burns, cuts, insect bites, muscular aches and poor circulation, oily skin and rheumatism. Analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, expectorant, stimulant. (A)
ORANGE, SWEET
Citrus sinensis
Essential oil
Pale yellowish-orange mobile liquid by cold expression of the outer skin, or a colorless to pale yellow mobile liquid by steam distillation, with a top note, sweet, fruity scent. High in vitamins A and C. Blends well with clary sage, lavender, lemon, myrrh, neroli and spice oils. Citrus scent is soothing and uplifting. Use for circulation, insect repellent, mouth ulcers, nervousness and oily skin. Astringent, antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, fungicidal, tonic. Stimulates the growth of new cells. Cold expressed oil is superior for aromatherapy use. (A, S, F) (PO, SE)
PALMAROSA
Cymbopogon martinii
Essential oil
Pale yellow to olive liquid by steam or water distillation with a floral, sweet, rosy-geranium scent. Blends well with geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, and floral oils. Use for acne, dermatitis, scars, sores, stress and wrinkles. Good for general skin care as it moisturizes the skin, stimulating cellular regeneration and regulating sebum production. Used extensively as a fragrance component in cosmetics and perfumes. Antiseptic, bactericidal, digestive, hydrating, stimulant. (A,S, F)
PATCHOULI
Pogostemon cablin
Essential oil
Dark orange to amber viscous liquid by steam distillation has a base note, sweet, rich, woodsy, exotic, musky scent. Blends well with cedarwood, clary sage, clove, geranium, lavender, neroli, myrrh, rose, sandalwood, vetiver and oriental blends. Use for acne, athlete's foot, chapped skin, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, fungal infections, insect repellent, nervousness, oily hair and skin, open pores, sores, stress, wounds and wrinkles. Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antitoxic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, deodorant, fixative, fungicidal, stimulant. (A, S)
PEPPERMINT
Mentha piperita
Essential oil
This perennial flowering herb produces a pale yellow to greenish liquid with a top note, rich, minty, camphoraceous scent. Blends well with eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, marjoram, rosemary and other mints. Cools, refreshes and stimulates. Use for acne, asthma, halitosis, headache, muscular pain, toothache, ringworm, scabies and stress. Cleansing and encourages topical circulation. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, expectorant. Use in moderation, and not in concentrations for infants and young children. (A, S, F) (PR, SE)
PETITGRAIN
Citrus aurantium var. amara
Essential oil
Produced from the same tree that provided neroli oil, this pale yellow to amber liquid by steam distillation has a fresh, citrus and floral scent with a woody-herbaceous undertone. Blends well with clary sage, clove, geranium, lavender neroli and rosemary. Use for acne, excessive perspiration, oily skin, stress and toning. Antiseptic, antispasmodic, deodorant, stimulant, tonic. (A, S)
PINE, Scotch
Pinus sylvestris
Essential oil
Often referred to as Pine Needle oil, this colorless to pale yellow mobile liquid by distillation of the needles has a base note, strong, turpentine-like, dry-balsamic scent. Blends well with cedarwood, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, marjoram, rosemary, sage and tea tree. Use for arthritis, cuts, lice, muscular aches, perspiration, poor circulation, scabies, sores and stress. Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, deodorant, expectorant, insecticidal and restorative. There are many Pinus species, with Scotch Pine being the safest and most useful therapeutically. (A, S, F) (SE)
ROSE
Rosa damascene
Attar, Absolute, Concrete
Essential oil
This very expensive pale yellow to yellowish-olive liquid essential oil or attar is produced by distillation of flower petals and has middle note, rich, sweet, floral scent. The absolute and concrete provides a reddish-orange to olive viscous liquid with a sweet, rich, slightly spicy, floral scent and blends well with most oils. Bulgarian type is thought to be superior in perfumery work. Use for asthma, dry skin, eczema, frigidity, herpes, insomnia, poor circulation and wrinkles. Soothes, relaxes and tones. Excellent for skin care and rejuvenates aging skin. Analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal. There are many different Rosa species. (A, S, F) (PR)
ROSEMARY
Rosmarinus officinalis
Essential oil
Clear to pale yellow mobile liquid by steam distillation has a fresh, strong minty, herbaceous scent with a balsamic, woody undertone. Blends well with basil, cedarwood, cinnamon, citronella, lavender, peppermint and other spice oils. Use for asthma, acne, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, gout, oily hair, insect repellent, lice, hair growth stimulant, migraines, muscular conditioning and poor circulation, rheumatism, seborrhea regulation, scabies, skin and hair care and stress. Camphoraceous scent stimulates and conditions. Analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, fungicidal, parasiticide, stimulant. Useful for concentration and aids in mental capacity. Stimulates the central nervous system. Keep out of eyes. (A, S, F) (HI, EP, PR)
ROSEWOOD
Anima rosaeodora
Essential oil
Mild and colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation with a base note, sweet woodsy, floral scent and a hint of spice. Rounds off sharp edges and blends well with most oils, especially citrus, floral and woods. Use for acne, combination and sensitive skin, deodorant, dermatitis, headaches, scars, split ends, wounds and wrinkles. Slightly analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, stimulant, tissue regenerator. (A, S,F)
SAGE, Clary
Salvia sclarea
Essential oil
Colorless to pale yellowish-green liquid by steam distillation of the leaves and tops and has a middle note, sweet, herbaceous, nutty scent. Blends well with cedarwood, coriander, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, sandalwood and citrus oils. Use for asthma, acne, boils, dandruff, deodorant, depression, fixative, frigidity, hair loss, hot flashes, skin inflammation, oily hair and skin, migraine, muscular aches, stress and wrinkles. Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, seborrhea regulator. There are many Salvia species, with Clary Sage generally preferred in aromatherapy over common sage, S. officinalis. Balancing and revitalizing. (A,S,F) (EP, PR)
SAGE, Spanish
Salvia lavandulifolia
Essential oil
Pale yellow mobile liquid by steam distillation from the leaves and has a slightly pine-like, fresh, herbaceous, camphoraceous scent. Blends well with cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, eucalyptus, lavender, juniper, pine and rosemary. Use for arthritis, acne, cuts, dandruff, deodorant, dermatitis, eczema, hair loss, gingivitis, muscular aches and poor circulation, rheumatism, sores, and sweating. Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, expectorant, seborrhea regulator. Also see Clary Sage. (A, S, F) (HI, EP, PR, TO)
SANDALWOOD
Santalum album
Essential oil
Pale yellow to brownish-green viscous liquid by water or steam distillation with a base note, rich, exotic, soft, woodsy-sweet, balsamic scent. Blends well with clove, geranium, jasmine, lavender, patchouli, rose, rosewood and for oriental and woody blends. Use for acne, aftershaves, chapped skin, dandruff, depression, moisturizer, nervousness, oily skin. Is relaxing, sensual and excellent for skin and hair care. Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, expectorant, fixative, insecticidal. Stimulates the immune system, which is beneficial for dry skin and acne. Calming, harmonizing and balancing. (A, S)
SILVER FIR NEEDLE
Abies alba
Essential Oil
Colorless or pale yellow liquid by steam distillation with a sweet, rich balsamic scent. Blends well with lavender, lemon, marjoram, and pine, among others. Use for arthritis, muscular aches and pains and rheumatism. Analgesic, antiseptic, stimulant. (A, S)
SPEARMINT
Mentha spicata
Essential oil
This pale yellow to olive liquid by steam distillation has a top note, spicy, warm, minty-herbaceous scent. Blends well with eucalyptus, jasmine, lavender, peppermint and rosemary. Use for acne, asthma, dermatitis, fatigue, headache and stress. Antiseptic, antispasmodic. astringent, decongestant, expectorant, stimulant. Use in moderation, and not in concentrations for infants or small children. (A, S, F) (PR, SE)
SPRUCE, Hemlock
Tsuga canadensis
Essential oil
Colorless to pale yellow liquid by steam distillation from the needles and twigs of this large evergreen tree has a sweet-fruity, pleasingly fresh and balsamic scent. Blends well with cedarwood, lavender, pine and rosemary. Use for asthma, muscular aches, poor circulation, pains and stress. Antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, expectorant. Clarifying. (A, S)
TEA TREE
Melaleuca alternifolia
Essential oil
This colorless to pale greenish-yellow liquid by steam or water distillation of the leaves has a spicy-camphoraceous scent. Blends well with clary sage, geranium, lavender, pine, rosemary and spice oils. Use for abscess, acne, asthma, athlete's foot, blisters, burns, cold sores, dandruff, eczema, oily skin, ringworm, wounds and more. Often referred to as "a first-aid kit in a bottle" due to its versatility. Penetrates skin quickly, and speeds the healing of skin disorders. Stimulating and energizing. Powerful antiseptic, anti-viral, germicide, fungicidal and parasiticide. There are many species of Melaleuca, and M. viridiflora is often referred to as niaouli. (A) (SE)
VANILLA
Vanilla planifolia
Absolute, Extract
This herbaceous perennial climbing vine produces a dark brown viscous liquid has a base note, sweet, rich, vanilla-like scent. May cause sensitization in some individuals. (S, F) (SE)
VETIVER
Vetiveria zizanioides
Essential oil
This perennial grass produces a brownish-olive to amber viscous oil by steam distillation from the roots and has a base note, woodsy-earth, smoky scent with a sweet undertone. Use for acne, arthritis, cuts, muscular aches, oily skin, stress. Antiseptic, antispasmodic, circulatory stimulant. (A, S)
YLANG YLANG
Cananga odorata
Essential oil
This tall tropical tree produces a pale yellow oil from the flowers which has a middle note, intensely sweet, floral-balsamic, slightly spicy, exotic scent. Blends well with jasmine, rose, and vetiver, among others. Use for acne, general skin care, hair growth, hair rinse, insect bites, irritated and oily skin. Stimulant for circulatory system. Uplifting, moisturizing, sensual and soothing. Antiseborrheic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, anti-infectious, and calming. All skin types, rejuvenating. There are several grades of oil, with the first distillation (about 40%) know as extra, and successive distillations referred to as 1st, 2nd and 3rd. (A, S) (SE)

Please Note: This list was compiled from research showing that these oils seem to be some of the least toxic for home use. This is only a partial listing of all the essential oils and other plant derivatives available, with a sampling of the many aromatheraputic uses reputed for these botanicals. Usage warnings provide general guidance only, and each person could react differently to any given product. If any irritation or reaction occurs with essential oil, either increase the dilution or discontinue use. It is a good idea to do a patch test. Avoid contact with eyes and mucus membranes and keep out of reach of children. The focus of this web site is for products and information intended for external use only. Consult your physician for advice, or aromatherapy reference for more detailed information, concerning your specific situation.

Resources: "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils" by Julia Lawless; "Complete Aromatherapy Handbook" by Susanne Fischer-Rizzi; "A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients" by Ruth Winter, M.S.; "The Art of Aromatherapy" by Robert B. Tisserand; The Soapmaker's Companion" by Susan Miller Cavitch.